NJDOT’s Research Librarian Recognized by the Special Libraries Association with 2024 Innovation Award for Work on the NJDOT Memorial Wall

The Special Libraries Association (SLA) recently announced that its 2024 Innovation Award recipient was Eric Schwarz, NJDOT’s Research Librarian, for his archival research work on the New Jersey DOT Memorial Wall. The SLA Transportation Community Board unanimously approved the nomination and a plaque, sponsored by National Rural Transit Assistance Program (RTAP), was provided in acknowledgement of the achievement. News of the award winners was announced via the National Transportation Knowledge Network (NTKN) Blog. The award will be officially announced at the SLA Annual Conference in Rhode Island later this month.

NJDOT Research Librarian, Eric Schwarz, with SLATRAN 2024 Innovation Award. Photo: Glenn Catana/NJDOT.

The SLA’s award announcement notes the following:

  • In 2000, the NJDOT erected an Employee Memorial wall with a plaque for each of the 32 employees known to have died under these circumstances. Over the years, four names were added, including those of employees who gave their lives in 2007 and 2010. This brought the pre-2023 total of known names to 36.
  • In early 2023, NJDOT Research Librarian Eric Schwarz found the names of five additional men who had sacrificed their lives, in an employee newspaper called The Highway, published from 1942 to 1950. These names were added to the wall during the NJDOT’s 23rd Annual Remembrance Ceremony and 22nd Anniversary of 9/11, held on September 11, 2023.
  • Using the accounts from The Highway, supplemented by research using the New Jersey State Library’s newspaper databases and draft registration cards from the military records database (Fold3), Eric pieced together the stories of these five men, their deaths, and their lives. He presented stories of these men, and of the archival and digitization work, as the keynote speaker at the NJDOT 2023 Remembrance Ceremony.
  • Then-New Jersey Transportation Commissioner Diane Gutierrez-Scaccetti presented Eric Schwarz with a plaque for his research leading to the addition of five names on the memorial wall.
  • Based on this work, Eric presented a poster at the TRB Annual Meeting on Jan. 8, 2024, “Discoveries in the First Year of New Jersey DOT’s Digitization Project.”  He also presented the project to the Transportation Librarians Roundtable, Special Libraries Association Transportation Community Collection Showcase, and several other venues.
Eric presented “lessons learned” implementing Digitization Project during TRB poster session at Annual Meeting in Washington DC.

Earlier this year, Eric gave a “Lunch and Learn” presentation to NJDOT employees that provided information about NJDOT’s Digitization Project along with the poster presented at the 2024 TRB Annual Meeting,  

More information about the online resources and historical documents that have been compiled with support from about Transportation Research and Connectivity Pooled Fund Study Digitization Project (TPF-5(442) study were shared during the presentation.

Further information and photos of the NJDOT 2023 Annual Remembrance Ceremony can be found here.


Join the Build a Better Mousetrap Competition!

New Jersey’s Build a Better Mousetrap Competition is currently underway!

NJ 2024 Build a Better Mousetrap Competition is underway!

The competition provides a great opportunity to share your ingenious and implemented solutions in transportation with others in New Jersey and across the country. These innovations can range from the development of tools and equipment modifications to the implementation of new processes that increase safety, reduce cost, and improve efficiency of our transportation system.

We are looking for submissions from employees of any local, county or state public agency, including the New Jersey Department of Transportation and NJ TRANSIT that have developed new solutions to problems or found better ways of doing things.

Winners will be chosen in two categories: Operations and Organizational Improvement. This competition is sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration’s Local Technical Assistance Program and Tribal Technical Assistance Program, and local public agency winners will be entered in the annual National LTAP/TTAP Conference.

A state winner in each category will also be selected and presented at the Annual NJDOT Research Showcase later this fall. The deadline for submissions has been extended to August 15, 2024.

2023 Winner: Route 71 Over the Shark River Bridge, Gerald Oliveto, NJDOT

New Jersey’s “Route 71 Over Shark River Road Diet Project” in Monmouth County was recognized with the “Bold Steps” Award in the Federal Highway Administration’s national competition last year as described here.

There is still time to share your ingenious solutions! Past examples of NJ’s recognized BABM award winning entries can be found here. More information about how to enter the competition and to download an entry form can be found here.

The NJ Transportation Ideas Portal is Open to Your Ideas!

The New Jersey Department of Transportation’s Bureau of Research, Innovation and Information Transfer (BRIIT) invites you to share your research and innovation ideas on the NJ Transportation Ideas Portal.

We seek to fund RESEARCH IDEAS that lead to implementation – to the testing and adoption of new materials and technologies, to better specifications and to greater efficiency. We strive to discover and advance feasible solutions for more durable infrastructure, greater environmental protection and resilience, and improved mobility and safety for residents, workers and visitors.

We encourage you to suggest INNOVATION IDEAS that advance deployment of innovations and knowledge transfer in transportation. We work with the New Jersey State Transportation Innovation Council (NJ STIC) whose mission is to identify, evaluate, and where possible, rapidly deploy new technologies and process improvements that will accelerate project delivery and improve the quality of NJ’s transportation network. Innovation Ideas will be vetted for next steps which might include research or supporting an initiative to deploy a new technology or process improvement to accelerate innovation.

WHO CAN SUBMIT IDEAS? NJDOT’s research customers and other interested transportation practitioners are encouraged to submit a research or innovation idea. The portal should be of interest to NJDOT, NJ TRANSIT and MPOs, and county and local governments, and other transportation subject matter experts from university, industry and trade organizations and other NGOs. The portal is also open to the public.

WHO ARE RESEARCH CUSTOMERS? Subject matter experts from NJDOT, NJ TRANSIT, or the NJ Motor Vehicles Commission are often our research customers. Research ideas typically must have a champion among our research customers. Ideally, a “champion” is a responsible individual within a division, bureau or unit who is prepared to sponsor or advance a research idea from its inception to study completion.

COLLECTING IDEAS NOW! Our research and innovation teams review submitted ideas for possible funding and other actions throughout the year. The last day to submit research ideas for the next round of funded transportation research is December 31, 2024.

Our research and innovation teams review submitted ideas for possible funding and other actions throughout the year.

REGISTER TO PARTICIPATE AND SUBMIT AN IDEA.  Once you are registered, you may submit ideas at any time.  Click on the “+” button at the top of the page to submit an idea after registering. Only registered participants may submit a new idea or vote on other ideas to show your support. Register at the NJ Transportation Ideas here:  https://njdottechtransfer.ideascale.com/

Email: ideas@njdottechtransfer.net

For more information about NJDOT Bureau of Research, Innovation, and Information Transfer, visit our website: https://www.state.nj.us/transportation/business/research/

Or contact us:  research.bureau@dot.nj.gov or (609) 963-2242

Did You Know? NJDOT’s Research Library Resources

The New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT) Research Library offers valuable assistance in supporting various research tasks and for accessing resources. This article highlights three key resources available:

AASHTO Standards. All of the current “featured” or “essential” standards, manuals, and guides from the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) are available to NJDOT employees. Some are available in print and/or CD-ROM and can be checked out with your New Jersey State Library card. All of the “featured/essential” publications are available to NJDOT employees via SharePoint. However, users must request access to individual publications and follow a specific download process. Many additional standards, both current and historical, are also available.

ASTM Standards. Formed in 1898, ASTM International is one of the world’s largest international standards developing organizations. NJDOT subscribes to the ASTM Compass database, which includes 81,757 standards from ASTM and 2,282 publications from AASHTO, as of May 21, 2024. The Research Library will be happy to help you retrieve specific standards available under this subscription. NJDOT employees who access ASTM standards frequently may also sign up for their own logins under the “Tools” page on the intranet.

TRID Database. TRID is an integrated database that combines the records from TRB’s Transportation Research Information Services (TRIS) Database and the OECD’s Joint Transport Research Centre’s International Transport Research Documentation (ITRD) Database. TRID provides access to 1.4 million records of transportation research worldwide.

Hot Topic Searches are available on the TRID Searches page

The Research Library maintains a “TRID Searches” page that contains a list of recent publications indexed in the TRID database organized by 37 subject areas. NJDOT’s Library also maintains “Hot Topic” searches that contain the projects and publications issued in the last five years on several topics, including: Transformational Technologies; Planning & Safety; Resilience; Sustainability; Diversity, Equity and Inclusion; and Workforce Recruitment and Retention.


Recent publications with New Jersey identifiers and/or prepared by NJ research institutions can be discovered through TRID.  A quick search in TRID of research from New Jersey published in the past six months included these articles:

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Safety

  • Zaman, A., Z. Huang, W. Li, H. Qin, D. Kang, and X. Liu. Development of Railroad Trespassing Database Using Artificial Intelligence. Rutgers University, New Brunswick, Federal Railroad Administration, Federal Railroad Administration, 2024, 80p. https://trid.trb.org/view/2341095

Bridges and Other Structures

  • Najafi, A., Z. Amir, B. Salman, P. Sanaei, E. Lojano-Quispe, A. Maher, and R. Schaefer. A Digital Twin Framework for Bridges. ASCE International Conference on Computing in Civil Engineering 2023, American Society of Civil Engineers, 2024, pp 433-441. https://trid.trb.org/view/2329319
  • Al Shaini, I., and A. Trias. Bridge deck surface damage assessment using point cloud data. Advances in Bridge Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2023, 31p. https://trid.trb.org/view/2301538

Environment and Underserved Communities

  • Ji, N., A. Baptista, C.H. Yu, C. Cepeda, F. Green, M. Greenberg, I. Colon Mincey, P. Ohman-Strickland, N. Fiedler, H.M. Kipen, and R.J. Laumbach. Traffic-related air pollution, chronic stress, and changes in exhaled nitric oxide and lung function among a panel of children with asthma living in an underresourced community. Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 912, 2024, p168984. https://trid.trb.org/view/2302836

Safety and Human Factors

  • Bartin, B., K. Ozbay, and C. Xu. Safety performance functions for two-lane urban arterial segments. Safety Science, Vol. 167, 2023, p106284. https://trid.trb.org/view/2229553
  • Hasan, A.S., D. Patel, and M. Jalayer. Did COVID-19 Mandates influence driver distraction behaviors? A case study in New Jersey. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Vol. 99, 2023, pp 429-449. https://trid.trb.org/view/2289812
  • Patel, D., R.E. Alfaris, and M. Jalayer. Assessing the effectiveness of autism spectrum disorder roadway warning signs: A case study in New Jersey. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Vol. 100, 2024, pp 57-68. https://trid.trb.org/view/2293015
  • Younes, H., R.B. Noland, and C.J. Andrews. Gender split and safety behavior of cyclists and e-scooter users in Asbury Park, NJ. Case Studies on Transport Policy, Vol. 14, 2023, p 101073. https://trid.trb.org/view/2238150
  • Younes, H., R.B. Noland, L.A. Von Hagen, and J. Sinclair. Cycling during and after COVID: Has there been a boom in activity? Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Vol. 99, 2023, pp 71-82. https://trid.trb.org/view/2274405

Public Participation

  • Keenan, K. The transportation policy elite and their ladder of citizen participation: Problems and prospects around communication methods in New Jersey. Cities, Vol. 145, 2024, p 104732. https://trid.trb.org/view/2309380

Public Transportation Ridership

  • Devajyoti, D. and Z. Liu. Who stopped riding buses and what would motivate them to return? A New Jersey case study. Case Studies on Transport Policy, Vol. 15, 2024, p 101159. https://trid.trb.org/view/2343481


NJDOT’s Bureau of Research, Innovation & Information Transfer (BRIIT), which includes the Research Library, funds research to enhance the quality and cost effectiveness of the policies, practices, standards and specifications that are used in planning, designing, building and maintaining New Jersey’s transportation infrastructure. BRIIT collaborates directly with university and other research professionals to find solutions to improve the durability and efficiency of infrastructure and the safety and mobility of New Jersey’s residents, workers, visitors and businesses. Ongoing research projects and completed research studies can be accessed here.

NJDOT’s BRIIT prepares an Annual Implementation Report that explore the value and benefits of its funded research. These reports survey and interview principal investigators, customers and research project managers to help identify next steps for research and implementation and document the strategies that have been used for technology transfer of research findings to the state’s transportation community. The most recent report, published in February 2024, covers research completed in 2021-2022.

Please contact the NJDOT research librarian, Eric Schwarz, MLIS, at (609) 963-1898, or email library@dot.nj.gov for assistance in your transportation research, or to customize your searches in TRID and other databases.

Interview with “Best Poster Award” Winner at 2023 Research Showcase: “Properties of Cementitious Materials with Reclaimed Cement”

Concrete production is energy intensive, and requires materials that are both challenging, and expensive to acquire. Material engineers are seeking alternative materials that are more cost-effective and carbon-friendly, but also operate successfully as road and building material.  

We spoke with Alyssa Yvette Sunga, a graduate researcher at Rowan University who won the Best Student Poster Award at NJDOT’s 2023 Research Showcase. Her research, “Properties of Cementitious Materials with Reclaimed Cement,” evaluated the characteristics of cementitious materials mixed with varying percentages of reclaimed cement. Sunga and her fellow researchers examined each mixture’s initial setting time, heat of hydration and compressive strength and compared it against ordinary Portland cement. The purpose: to determine if adding reclaimed cement has any effect on the durability and use of cementitious materials. If there is little to no adverse effect, reclaimed cement may help reduce the need for new materials and can reduce the carbon bi-product of concrete. Dr. Shahriar Abubakri (Shah), Ms. Sunga’s supervisor at Rowan University, also joined us for the interview. 

Q. Could you tell us a little bit about your educational and research experience and how you got where you are now as a graduate research fellow at Rowan? 

A. I’m an international student from the Philippines. I graduated from the University of the Philippines – Los Banos in 2017 with a Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering. After that, I worked in industry from 2018 to 2022. My former undergraduate professors, who were graduate students here [at Rowan], reached out to me asking if I was interested in pursuing graduate studies. I applied and began my Master’s in Civil Engineering in January 2023. 

Q. What interested you about researching the properties of reclaimed cement? Do you hope to continue research in pavement materiality? 

A. The environmental impact of reclaimed materials like cement is interesting to me. Cement production is a significant contributor to carbon emissions, so finding ways to reuse it is essential. Additionally, reclaimed cement presents unique challenges and opportunities in terms of material properties, durability, and performance. 

So, in a way, we’re helping produce less carbon emissions; that’s what interested me about this study. 

I’m currently working on a lot of different concrete projects. We’re hoping to develop more efficient construction approaches, but I also aim to contribute to the development of innovative techniques and solutions that will optimize reclaimed materials in construction projects. We also aspire to collaborate with industry partners and government organizations, so that we can implement these sustainable practices on a full-scale project in the future. 

Alyssa Sunga received the Best Poster Award for Student Research At the 25th Annual NJDOT Research Showcase in October 2023.

Q. Was there anything particularly noteworthy or surprising to you discovered from this research? 

A. Yes, there’s potential for reclaimed cement and enhancing the performance of unsustainable construction materials. We did not expect that we could use it as a replacement cement or as a supplementary cementitious material. Through various experiments, we found that using this reclaimed cement or incorporating it in cementitious mixtures resulted in comparable properties such as durability, strength, and workability. 

Q. Your research looked at cement paste and mortar specimens incorporated with up to 20% Reclaimed Cement and found no significant difference for the flow measurement and setting time. Should further research be done with higher percentages of reclaimed cement? Why did your research cap it at 20%? 

A. We’re planning to do further research on larger amounts of reclaimed cement. We just used 20% as a cap to get a general idea of the effect of partially replacing ordinary Portland cement with reclaimed cement. Now that our research with 20% is showing good results, we plan on doing tests with higher percentages in the future. 

Q. Your research found that cement paste specimens with up to 20% Reclaimed Cement (RC) saw a 4% reduction in compressive strength after 90 days. What does this mean for applicability (i.e. is 4% a significant reduction? does this make cement paste with 20% RC not suitable for pavement?) 

A. A 4% reduction may seem small, but it must still be taken into consideration. However, as long as the strength is within a recommended range, then it is suitable for pavement applications. 

Q. Is there a percentage of reclaimed cement that is most likely not suitable for pavement? 

A. Alyssa: My advisor would like to jump in to answer that. 

Shah: The acceptable percentage of reduction in concrete strength depends on the specific application and the assumptions made by the designer. For instance, practical standards like the American Concrete Institute (ACI 301.1.6.6) typically require that the average strength of three samples meets or exceeds the specified compressive strength. Additionally, each individual sample within this set should not fall below 500 psi of the designed strength. It’s important to note that concrete’s compressive strength can vary widely, ranging from 2500 psi to 5000 psi, and even higher in residential and commercial structures. Some applications may require strengths exceeding 10,000 psi. So, in cases where the required strength aligns with the design strength, even higher reductions may be acceptable. 

Q. Mortar specimens with 20% RC had a different result and surpassed the strength after 28 days. Why do you think this was a different result from cement paste specimens? What does this mean for applicability? 

A. This difference in result may be due to different factors, but mortar differs from cement paste due to the additional materials like sand. So, this can influence the hydration and the strength development, but we still need to do further research to understand the long-term performance and durability or the effect of adding different materials to the cementitious materials.  

We still must do further research to see the effects of adding different materials like sand and gravel to cement paste. If we’re going to use it in concrete, that’s another additional material like an aggregate. It’s just a matter of the specific materials. There are a lot of factors — like the temperature where you make your specimens. So, it’s always just trial and error. There’s no trend to it really. 

Q. Your poster suggests that incorporating up to 20% RC has some promising benefits including reducing carbon emissions. What are some of the other benefits?  

A. Incorporating the 20% RC will help mitigate supply shortages because we’re able to provide an alternative source of material instead of just using cement. It also promotes eco-friendly construction practices, contributing to sustainable transportation infrastructure, and research on reclaimed cement enables ongoing enhancements in material performance and construction methods. 

Q. You have mentioned throughout this interview where there’s a need for more research. Can you describe some specific things that you would really like to research about incorporating reclaimed cement into cementitious materials? 

A. The most important part of this research is determining what is the optimal mix proportions to use and then studying the effects on fresh properties and assessing the long-term durability like compressive strength, the tensile strength. These investigations are crucial for understanding the full potential of reclaimed cement in construction. Personally, I’m deeply interested in exploring these research areas further. 

Q. What kind of impact do you hope this research will have on material selection by transportation agencies? 

A. I hope this research convinces transportation agencies to use reclaimed cement in pavements. It’s sustainable, cost effective and performs well — aligning with transportation agencies’ goals and standards. This could lead to a greener and more resilient transportation infrastructure. 


Sunga, A., Abubakri, S., Lomboy, G., Mantawy, I. (2023). “Properties of Cementitious Materials with Reclaimed Cement”. Rowan University Center for Research & Education in Advanced Transportation Engineering Systems. Poster.

Yvette Sunga, A., Abubakri, S., Lomboy, G., & Mantawy, I.M. (2024). Properties of Cementitious Materials with Reclaimed Cement. Presented at IABSE Symposium: Construction’s Role for a World in Emergency, Manchester, United Kingdom, 10-14 April 2024, published in IABSE Symposium Manchester 2024, pp. 428-434. Retrieved at: https://structurae.net/en/literature/conference-paper/properties-of-cementitious-materials-with-reclaimed-cement

For more information about the 25th Annual NJDOT Research Showcase, and to see other award-winning posters, visit: Recap: 25th Annual NJDOT Research Showcase – NJDOT Technology Transfer (njdottechtransfer.net)

Testing Biometric Sensors for Use in Micromobility Safety

Biometric sensors have long been used in cognitive psychology to measure the stress-level of individuals. These sensors can measure a variety of human behaviors that translate as stress: the movement of eyes, stress-induced sweat, and heart rate variability. Recently, this research strategy has moved beyond psychology and into disciplines like transportation planning, to provide an alternative approach to researching micromobility and stress.  

We spoke with Dr. Wenwen Zhang, associate professor at the Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy at Rutgers University, about her experience learning about and using biometrics for a micromobility study. Dr. Zhang’s research, “Rider-Centric Approach to Micromobility Safety” examines the stress levels of micromobility users as they transverse a varied path through an urban space.  

Q. How is your research funded? 

A. Funding comes from multiple sources. The first source is a seed grant from the Rutgers Research Council which supports an interdisciplinary pilot project. Through this grant, we purchased biometric sensors and hired students to conduct a literature review and develop a research design. We also processed the collected pilot data and paid for participation incentives under this funding. I presented preliminary findings from this study, Rider-Centric Approach to Micromobility Safety, at the 2023 NJDOT Research Showcase. At the time that I presented it, I had 24 samples. The presentation ended up inspiring several people who attended the Research Showcase to volunteer as participants—which increased the sample size to 30.

Our other source of funding came from an external grant from the C2Smart University Transportation Center (UTC) at NYU. We used this resource to support obtaining additional stress sensors, data analysis, cleaning, preprocessing, and modeling, as well as collecting more sample data for the E-scooter and bicycle experiments.

Q. How did you get interested in using biometrics sensors (e.g., eye tracking glasses, galvanic skin sensor, heart rate monitors) to study micromobility safety? How does this research differ from your past work? 

A. Before I used biometric sensors, most of my work used passive travel behavior data. For example, to determine the revealed preferences of mode and route choices and risk factors, we used travel trajectory or existing crash big data to develop statistical models. I have found that the entire process is very passive, especially since we only explore risk factors after traffic accidents. It’s surprising that in the research field today we know so little about how human beings actually navigate urban environments while using different travel modes and how it relates to perceived safety. I wanted to explore questions like what is their gaze behavior? How do they feel while they travel using different modes? How do they feel traveling on roads with different design features and how is that going to influence their travel satisfaction or experience overall? 

Dr. Robert Noland, Distinguished Professor at the Rutgers Bloustein School, suggested I investigate the use of biometrics in planning studies. As I dug more into the literature, I realized that biometrics in transportation is a very fascinating topic that I wanted to get into. Once I did experiments in the field, I realized that I really enjoyed talking with different people about how they perceive the built environment while they travel. Biometrics provide richer data compared with revealed preference data that I used to work with.

Q. In your research, you noticed that some corridors were more stress-inducing (according to biometric sensors) than expected, despite properly designed safety infrastructure. How do you think this discovery may affect how planners and engineers look at urban road design and micromobility safety? 

 A. This study collected one-time cross-sectional data. We asked people to walk around an area and tell us whether they feel stressed or not. If they are feeling stress, even in the presence of a safety improvement, it does not necessarily mean that the implemented safety design is not working. For example, in New Brunswick, we observed that a lot of people found it stress-inducing to cross Livingston Avenue, although it has been the subject of a road diet and has several pedestrian safety features incorporated into the new design. While outside our scope of research, one way to understand the impact of the safety infrastructure would be to conduct a “before” and “after” study. This leaves an opportunity for more research, to see how effective the pedestrian-only infrastructure is in reducing stress level. Potentially, it can provide evidence to support pedestrian-only design. Biometric sensors used in a “before and after” study can help us to answer which infrastructure is more preferred. 

Q. You are in the process of collecting data for cyclists and e-scooters using the same method, what are your principal objectives in addressing this segment? Do you expect the results to be different?

Dr. Zhang conducted one pilot e-scooter experiment at Asbury Park, NJ in 2022 to test out the devices and examine how to set up research experiments. She equipped the e-scooter rider, Dr. Hannah Younes, post-doc researcher at the Rutgers Bloustein School, with an eye tracking glass, a GSR sensor on the hand, and a 360-degree camera on top of the helmet.

A. Yes, absolutely, different travel modes will likely alter a person’s expectation for a safe travel environment. For example, we noticed a big difference in the enjoyment of pedestrians and e-scooters on the same path through a park. We had thought that the e-scooter users would enjoy the ride as the pedestrians had, however, the pavement was too rough for the small wheels of the e-scooters. Although the park was walking-friendly, it was not friendly for e-scooters. This shows that each of these micromobility modes needs different kinds of support to feel safe and comfortable.

Q. What are the limitations to this study? Do you have plans for future research to address this? How would you like to expand your research in this topic?

A. Each of the biometric sensors has limitations. For example, eye trackers face some difficulty when identifying the pupils of a participant in direct sunlight. As a result, the eye tracker renders a low eye tracking rate. Eye trackers also work better with darker eyes as the eye movements are more readily recognized. The eye trackers, kept on glasses, also restrict individuals who wear glasses from participating. The unfortunate result of this is that it often excludes a lot of senior people from the experiment. This issue may be alleviated as we are obtaining additional funding to obtain prescription lenses for eye trackers.

GSR sensors use low voltage on skin to measure skin conductivity, which may interfere with electric health devices. This limits individuals from participating if they have an electric health device like a pacemaker on or in their body. We purposefully excluded this population from participating to align with IRB (Institutional Review Board) protocol and to mitigate any risks.

Another limitation of the study is that we must collect sample data one by one, which is a time-consuming process. We can only collect a very small sample compared to a traditional statistical model kind of study, which may have access to thousands of records in the sample. From our literature review, biometrics sensor studies typically involve 20 to 30 participants, but for each participant we have a very rich dataset. For each participating volunteer, we end up with over one gigabyte of data. The limited number of participants may make it harder to generalize results to the entire population, and people may question the results applicability. In some ways this data is similar to the results of qualitative studies, where we have richer information but small sample size, rendering some generalizability issues. 

Feelings of safety were measured using the traditional self-report survey as well as biometric trackers like Heart Rate Trackers, Eye trackers and GSR (pictured above).

Q. What challenges have you found in working with biometrics sensors, or in the interpretation of output measures?

A. The eye tracker and heart rate measures are reliable, but some biometrics have posed challenges. The GSR (galvanic skin response sensor), which tests your sweat level, is very sensitive to humidity and time of the day. The sensor also picks up on sweat resulting from physical exertion, making it difficult to distinguish between stress-induced sweat and physical sweat.

Interpretation of output measures for this metric requires data cleaning and processing to eliminate the effect of sweating from physical exertion. We try to decompose the data to separate the emotional peak from the sweating caused by physical activity using various algorithms. We are still underway testing out different algorithms to clean up the data. So far, we have found that GSR data are very real-time in nature and a good indicator for stress level but are very noisy data and requires some manual processing. This means we spend a lot of time preprocessing the collected data before conducting data analysis. 

Q. How do you expect this research to inform transportation agencies in New Jersey and elsewhere?

A. This type of research captures such rich data on travel behavior itself. Most of the literature using biometrics has been focused on driving, so this research expands the perspective. Here we’re focusing on slow mobility, like active travel and micromobility. Individuals who participate in slow mobility are more vulnerable road users, and we want to see how they behave in different travel environments. This can help agencies gain more insights into how to design safety infrastructure. Beyond that I can also envision the technology being used to evaluate whether certain improvements or infrastructure designs help to improve travel satisfaction or improve people’s experience at the same location by doing “before and after” studies. This type of study also allows you to measure and quantify the effect of the improvement. 

The use of biometric sensors in the field can also be used to foster meaningful public engagement processes to show the lived experience of different people in a neighborhood or traveling through a different corridor, which can be very powerful.

Q. Do you feel the research methods are at a stage where they are “ripe” for use on other demonstration projects, planning or project development studies?

A. After one year of experimentation, our project team can readily work with biometrics. We have a good understanding of sensor limitations and how to set up the sensors to correctly reduce noise as much as possible. Our experience has also helped determine what kind of metrics can be extracted successfully and reliably through the sensors.  

The most useful case for those sensors is to evaluate before and after, so that we can quantify how much people appreciate those implementations in a more accurate way. Beyond that, the sensors can also be effective infrastructure assessment tools. For example, imagine that you ask people to wear biometric sensors and do a bicycle infrastructure evaluation; the agencies can get more realistic and rich data compared with a more traditional survey approach. This rich data can help determine the most effective improvement. It ends up being more inclusive that way.

The tools can be very useful for fostering community engagement with vulnerable populations. For example, if agencies want to improve the accessibility for wheelchair users, they can ask individuals in wheelchairs to wear the sensors and move about an area. Recording and reviewing how they experience a journey is more powerful compared with just asking individuals with needs about their travel patterns. It’s going to be a more straightforward way to show the world how we can make the streets more inclusive for those vulnerable populations. 

Q. Do you think local governments and non-governmental organizations could make use of biometrics sensors as a strategy to promote community engagement and outreach to local communities, or to address specific community safety or livability issues?  Would it be cost-prohibitive to employ such tools for such community-based planning issues at this time?  

A.  From my point of view, the most effective way would be for the agencies to identify where there are needs and promising projects and then work with skilled researchers or practitioners who have these sensors already and have begun to climb the learning curve in the use of sensors and interpretation — for example, they could work with us. They would need to pay for the researchers’ time and participation incentives, or if they were to collaborate with a UTC (University Transportation Center) to conduct such research collaboratively.  

The sensors are not the most expensive part of the study. The most expensive item is the researcher’s time to collect and analyze the data. The data are very complicated to analyze in the first place because it’s a large amount of data with noises. The researchers need to put in a lot of time to get it to the state where you can extract the relevant variables out and start to interpret them.

Q. How would you characterize the “state-of-training” in using biometrics for students or early career or mid-career professionals in transportation?    

A. The biometric sensor itself is not very new, but new to the transportation field, especially for slow modes. It has been widely used in cognitive psychology, where there are classes to interpret those as well. Generally, I don’t think the current transportation and urban planning curriculum for students includes enough classes to cover those sensors. We probably need to teach not only biometric sensors, but urban sensing in general. 

In an ideal course, students could get their hands dirty by putting those sensors in the field and then once the data are collected, they can learn how to preprocess and analyze the data. It would have to be a one-year kind of curriculum design to get people involved and ready for it. Of course, instruction on the use of sensors will differ by topic. For example, if you are working in the air quality field, then there are many different air quality sensors and each of them come with different data formats and require different experiment design and analytic skills.

Regarding the mid-career transportation professional, at this moment I believe the research is more in the academic field and focusing on testing and evaluation. I wouldn’t suggest that the research is so ripe that a mid-career transportation or urban planner professional should need to invest their time in learning how to use biosensors unless they have a research project that may benefit substantially from using the sensors.  


To learn more about the use of biometrics in the field of active transportation, see:

Ryerson, M., Long, C., Fichman, M., Davidson, J.H., Scudder, K.N., Kim, M., Katti, R., Poon, G. & Harris, M., (2021). Evaluating Cyclist Biometrics to Develop Urban Transportation Safety Metrics. Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 159, 2021. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001457521003183?via%3Dihub

Fitch, D.T., Sharpnack, J. & Handy, S. (2020). Psychological Stress of Bicycling with Traffic: Examining Heart Rate Variability of Bicyclists in Natural Urban Environments. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behavior, Volume 70, 2020, Pages 81-97. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1369847819304073?via%3Dihub.

To read more on Dr. Zhang’s work, see:

Zhang, W. (2023). Rider-centric Approach to Micromobility Safety. 25th Annual NJDOT Research Showcase. Presentation. Retrieved from https://www.njdottechtransfer.net/wp-content/uploads/2023/11/Zhang-Safety-2nd-Presentation.pdf.

Zhang. W. 25th Annual NJDOT Research Showcase. Recording starts at: 59:00. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/D_rQP-Dv8gU

Zhang, W., Buehler, R., Broaddus, A. & Sweeney, T. (2021). What Type of Infrastructures do E-scooter Riders Prefer? A Route Choice Model. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, Volume 94, 2021. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1361920921000651.

For more information about the use of biometrics in the broader transportation field, see NYU’s C2SMART’s research project on Work Zone Safety:

Exploring the Future of Environmental Product Declarations at NJDOT: Q&A Interview with NJDOT’s Project Lead

Under the FHWA’s Climate Challenge, state DOTs and local agencies receive training and work with various stakeholders including those from industry and academia to implement projects that quantify the environmental impacts of pavements using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs). EPDs provide an in-depth look at the use effects and environmental impacts of materials, processes, and mixtures. With a general goal to reduce carbon emissions, DOTs are moving towards the use of EPDs for selecting pavement uses and processes.

We spoke with Nusrat Morshed, Project Engineer in the Pavement Design & Technology Unit at NJDOT, about two FHWA project grants funded under the Climate Challenge initiative that she supervises. Both projects focus on the potential use of EPDs and LCA in New Jersey and will allow for NJDOT to develop a strong baseline understanding of EPD use.

FHWA Funded Climate Challenge Projects

Q. Can you tell us about two FHWA-funded Climate Challenge projects listed for New Jersey. How is NJDOT currently involved in these FHWA funded projects? What are tasks for these projects?

A. NJDOT applied for this research project funding in early 2023 after the advertisement was released. I had spoken with representatives from Rowan University and Rutgers University to gauge their interest in this research, and both were on board. EPDs is a very new concept and term within the transportation field. This made it challenging to determine what the project scope should be for our grant applications. We received funding from FHWA immediately, but there were some technical issues in the allocation of state and federal funding shares that we needed to sort out before we could proceed. Both research teams officially began work in September and October of 2023 and they will have until the end of 2024 to carry out the work.

The research team for Project 1, Utilization of EPDs and LCAs to Promote Sustainability in NJ’s Pavements, is led by Dr. Yusuf Mehta from Rowan University and they are teamed with the research sub-consultant, Advanced Infrastructure Design (AID). The objective of this project is to utilize EPDs and LCAs to promote consideration of sustainability in maintaining NJDOT’s pavement infrastructure. The tasks within this project scope include: conducting a literature review, defining the goals and scope of the comparative LCA analysis, data collection, and analysis of results and interpretation.

The research team for Project 2, Improve Sustainability of Asphalt Pavement Overlay in NJ, is led by Dr. Hao Wang from Rutgers University. The research project objective is to improve the sustainability of asphalt pavement overlay in New Jersey. The project’s basic tasks include: documenting experiences and lessons of using FHWA’s LCA PAVE tool based on analysis of pavement overlay project in New Jersey DOT, evaluating quantification methods for calculating carbon emissions at the use phase of pavement, providing recommendations for use of LCA in decision making of pavement overlays, and preparing a final report and presentation.

Example EPD summary, retrieved from USDOT FHWA Tech Brief: Building Blocks of Life-Cycle Thinking

I am the key point person for both projects.

Q. What is the status of these FHWA funded projects? What resources have been helpful so far?

A. Both projects are underway now but still in the early stages. I received a status report from Project 1 about a month ago and expect a status report from Project 2 before March. For both projects, the focus has been to complete a literature review. One resource that was particularly helpful was the National Asphalt Pavement Associations (NAPA) website, as they have a lot of information on EPDs — 15 EPDs thus far have been identified — which are NJDOT specifications. We have also reached and had a meeting with the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) to get information on their own EPD process.

Q. The FHWA Climate Challenge program seems like it has established an approach to promote knowledge sharing and fostering a community of practice. Can you tell us about it?
A. Every quarter, FHWA conducts a climate challenge webinar, and on this webinar there is usually a featured presentation from an expert and then brief update presentations from climate challenge project teams. These project teams extend beyond New Jersey, so other states can hear how NJDOT is doing with these projects and we can learn from our peers in other states.

Previously our updates have been limited to 2 or 3 slides, however, later this spring I will have two reports to base our presentation upon, which will be more comprehensive and reflective of NJDOT’s progress.

Attendees at a Climate Challenge Training session. source: FHWA

The quarterly webinars have been helpful and instructive. EPDs and sustainable resiliency are also very hot topics and several other resources are emerging that we can reference. For example, there was an entire session on EPDs at the Transportation Research Board’s Annual Meeting. Published literature has also been very helpful.

As a part of the project grants, FHWA is providing EPD-specific trainings. Both research teams and I have brainstormed about trainings our teams require. I have coordinated with FHWA as a Climate Challenge member and explained our training needs for accomplishing these two projects. FHWA and I drafted an agenda based on these research needs and we have scheduled a day and a half in-person training for March 2024. I requested that both of my teams submit their findings, as a status report before that training. So it also will be our official first status meeting for both project teams.

As a Project Engineer overseeing these projects, I am not able to work directly with the research, but I provide guidance to the universities and have been the communication bridge between them and FHWA. The training is hosted by FHWA and conducted by FHWA and a third-party organization that specializes in EPDs. These trainings are hosted throughout the U.S. To make this happen, FHWA provided us with their schedule, and we negotiated a time for them to do the training in March 2024.

Q. Who was in attendance for this training?

The training was done on March 12-13, 2024 at NJDOT. This training was focused on team members from both projects. There were representatives from the NJDOT Bureau of Materials, NJDOT Bureau of Statewide Strategies and NJDOT Division of Environmental Resources who participated.

Q. How has this funding assisted with NJDOT’s Every Day Counts (EDC) EPDs related goal?

Unless a NJ STIC Incentive Grant is awarded, FHWA does not provide any funding directly for advancing the EDC-7 innovation, but instead supports the deployment goals through the mobilization of FHWA resource specialists or subject matter experts who are farther along with innovation’s deployment. Luckily, the research of EPDs is a goal within EDC-7, so both of the funded Climate Challenge projects are indirectly supporting that EDC-7 goal.

Q. Have any pilot programs begun?

As we are still in the research stage for EPD use, we have not created any pilot programs yet.

Environmental Product Declarations in the Future

Q. Can you describe the status and implementation goal for NJDOT’s EDC-7 goal for advancing EPDs in New Jersey?

NJDOT’s EDC-7 goal for advancing EPDs in New Jersey is still in the preliminary stages of information gathering. Both of these climate challenge projects will assist with building up a robust set of literature that is necessary for next steps. Our goal is to get ideas for future recommendations. As of now, I would say we need to identify a few plants or suppliers and get some real-time data for different types of considerations based on research needs. Then we need to identify which way we can achieve EPD targets like lowering carbon emissions.

The stages of Pavement’s life cycle. Retrieved from USDOT FHWA Sustainable Pavements Program.

Q. What challenges, if any, has NJDOT faced while working to incorporate EPDs into pavement considerations?

EPD is based on many stages, which require their own literature review. For example, a product category rule, or a set of rules for measuring life-cycle analysis must be developed first. EPDs have different stages that all must be measured — specifically, the production stage, transportation stage and construction stage, or as they are called the A1, A2, A3. Achieving the goal of reduction in carbon emissions through EPDs requires a lot of research and literature review, and it will not be easy to get all the needed information, even when speaking with experts. Starting from scratch, the ability to quantify an EPD could take at least two years. So, it’s not that you will be getting something very quickly. We are just exploring now what is out there and how we can think about something in terms of New Jersey’s pavement mixes.

Q. How does NJDOT use or reference the published EPDs in New Jersey as reported by the National Asphalt Pavement Association’s Emerald Eco-Label tool?

We have looked at the National Asphalt Pavement Association (NAPA) website and reviewed their own PAVERS tool. It has been helpful to see how they do life-cycle analysis. They have their own LCA tool and we use the FHWA LCA tool — so there will most likely be differences. The FHWA LCA tool is expected to be updated soon.

Q. Do you foresee NJDOT having an embodied carbon clause added to NJDOT contract specifications? Will contractors be expected to submit an asphalt mix that provides EPDs to be considered for future contracts?

LCA PAVE Tool assists with analysis and quantification of the environmental impacts of existing products or processes. Retrieved from USDOT FHWA

Yes, definitely, we can dream, but it will take time. We need to identify and set the product category rule. More research is needed, maybe there will be future training opportunities on this topic from FHWA.

Q. Where is the biggest research gap when it comes to the incorporation and use of EPDs? Is it research on the pavement itself, or life cycle analysis, or something else?

EPD is not a single term, but a combination of a lot of things. In the process of determining an EPD for one pavement treatment, you must consider the process of installation, the type of pavement or asphalt mix, the binder and aggregate within the mix, etc. Because each of these processes require their own considerations, we must make the decision on what process and pavement, or asphalt mix should be evaluated first. We can then use our results to determine where the use of EPDs would be most helpful, or which process should be studied next. In other words, we cannot do everything at once, but rather start very specifically and focused, and then move out.

The five steps of developing Environmental Product Declarations (EPD). Retrieved from Tech Brief: Building Blocks of Life Cycle Thinking

 Q. Has NJDOT had an opportunity to use or test the FHWA LCA Pave Tool? If so, how does it use the tool?

I have used that tool before, but I just use it as a general gauge as I don’t have any real-time data currently. I will need training in the future on how to efficiently use the tool based on actual data. I also think this tool will be helpful in the future for determining if our results are realistic. Our research team members are using this tool.

 Q. How are you feeling about this initiative?

As a state government employee, I see this initiative as an effort that will help NJDOT be aligned with NJ’s clean energy policies. EPDs are a new topic for us, and everyone is very interested in learning more about it, including me. The funding opportunity that FHWA provided allows DOTs throughout the U.S. to explore this new topic and determine its applicability in the future of pavement and asphalt design.


FHWA Climate Challenge – Quantifying Emissions of Sustainable Pavements. FHWA webpage. Retrieved at https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/infrastructure/climatechallenge/projects/index.cfm

LCA Pave Tool. FHWA webpage. Retrieved at https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/lcatool/

Emerald Eco-Label. Webpage. Retrieved at https://asphaltepd.org/published?state=NJ

What is Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) for Sustainable Project Delivery? Webpage. Retrieved at: https://www.njdottechtransfer.net/epds-for-sustainable-project-delivery/

Life Cycle Assessment: Part I Fundamentals. Webinar, FHWA Sustainable Pavements Webinar Series. Retrieved at: https://youtu.be/uaJ8wGMAPD0?si=oBHnBSN2K1589JEa

An Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment: Part II – EPDs and PCRs, FHWA Sustainable Pavements Webinar Series. Retrieved at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y4OqVR6U2Us

Sustainable Pavements Program. FHWA Webpage. Retrieved at https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/sustainability/

Sustainability Analysis: Environmental. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). FHWA Webpage. Retrieved at: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/sustainability/environmental/

Meijer, J., Harvey, J., Butt, A., Kim, C., Ram, P., Smith, K., & Saboori, A. (2021). LCA Pave: A Tool to Assess Environmental Impacts of Pavement Material and Design Decisions-Underlying Methodology and Assumptions (No. FHWA-HIF-22-033). United States. Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved at: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/lcatool/LCA_Pave_Tool_Methodology.pdf

Milleer, Lianna; Ciaviola, Benjamiin and Mukherjee, Amlan. (February 2024). EPD Benchmark for Asphalt Mixtures, SIP-108. Prepared for National Asphalt Pavement Association by WAP Sustainability. Retrieved at: https://www.asphaltpavement.org/uploads/documents/EPD_Program/NAPA-SIP108-EPDBenchmarkForAsphaltMixtures-Feb2024.pdf

STIC Incentive Program Funds are Available!

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) offers STIC Incentive Funding, as well as technical assistance, to support the standardization and advancement of innovative practices. The NJ STIC receives $125,000 each year and state and local public agencies in transportation are eligible to apply.

To be eligible, a project or activity must have a statewide impact in fostering a culture for innovation or in making an innovation a standard practice, and must align with FHWA’s Technology Innovation Deployment Program goals.  The NJ STIC will consider projects and activities that advance innovations such as the Every Day Counts (EDC) innovations that are being promoted by FHWA.  

Proposed STIC project ideas are prioritized by the NJ STIC for each federal fiscal year. Selected projects are then submitted to the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) for approval. The request submittal does not guarantee funding nor award of funding.

The NJDOT Bureau of Research, Innovation and Information Transfer is ready to answer your questions and assist applicants. For more information on eligibility, proposal requirements, past funded projects, and more, please visit: the New Jersey STIC Incentive Fund Requests webpage.

NJDOT Lunch and Learn: An Inside Look at the Research Library and its Digitization Project

In the 1940s, the State Highway Department (predecessor to the New Jersey Department of Transportation) created its first departmental library for transportation information. For the past 80 years, this depository of relevant transportation articles and materials has grown. Today NJDOT’s research library is a part of the Bureau of Research, Innovation & Information Transfer. The library offers employees several research and career development resources and holds a collection of documents of notable histories of transportation in New Jersey.

As a part of the NJDOT’s Lunch and Learn series, on February 22, 2024, Eric Schwarz, NJDOT’s research librarian, gave NJDOT employees an overview of the resources available through the NJDOT Research Library and directed a portion of his talk to “Discoveries in the First Year of the NJDOT’s Digitization Project.” The digitization project is an effort to make past documents, films, and other materials from the NJDOT archive, accessible online. Eric has been instrumental to the digitization project, leveraging resources of the multi-state Transportation Research and Connectivity Pooled Fund Study Digitization Project [TPF-5(442)].

The Lunch and Learn presentation gave NJDOT employees an overview of the NJDOT Research Library and highlighted several digitally archived historical materials and “lessons learned” during the first year of NJDOT’s digitization project.

Materials range from historic newspaper articles of The Highway to documentary clips of past infrastructure projects and initiatives. Materials have been selected, catalogued, indexed, processed, and preserved by Eric. The digitized materials are now accessible on the Internet Archive’s page for the NJDOT Research Library and contribute to the overall story of transportation in New Jersey.

Notably, the digitization efforts led to uncovering the names of several NJDOT employees who died while working for the department and its predecessor agencies. Five of these individuals were recognized at the Annual Remembrance Ceremony held in September 2023 with name plaques added to a Memorial Wall maintained by NJDOT at Headquarters. As noted during the Lunch and Learn presentation, additional documentary evidence has been found of persons who lost their lives while on duty as the digitization project has proceeded in recent months.

Eric’s presentation conveyed how the digitization project contains a well-spring of information that may prove of interest to historians and other researchers. Digitized materials like old photographs, maps and videos show the makeup of the highway commission in 1922, the number of miles in the State Highway System in 1925, and the number of women who have served as transportation commissioner. The digitized materials reveal several ways that NJDOT has contributed to safety innovations in transportation, including the implementation of cloverleafs, breakaway signs, center barriers, and the piloting and expansion of Emergency/Safety Service Patrol operations. This and other information about the state’s transportation history was made engaging and interactive through mini-pop quizzes.

Eric displayed the research poster about the Digitization Project presented at the Transportation Research Board Annual Conference held in Washington DC in January of 2024 at the Lunch and Learn event.

In addition to describing the digitization process and lessons learned participating in the pooled funded study, Eric gave an overview of the NJDOT Research Library, including its various services and available resources.

Eric noted reference and research services that can be accessed through the NJDOT Research Library. Employees, as well as other transportation professionals, may access various online resources and databases through the research library. Online databases and other sources include:

  • TRID (Transportation Research Board) — A collection of worldwide transportation research
  • Bureau of Transportation Statistics — Statistical information useful to transportation professionals
  • ROSA-P — the National Transportation Library’s Repository and Open Science Access Portal
  • ASTM Compass — Specialty documents from ASTM, AASHTO, American Welding Society
  • AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials) — Standards and Publications

The research library also provides professional development tools like exam preparation books that can be lent out for several weeks. These books will help professionals prepare for a range of Civil Service and Professional Exams.

As state employees, NJDOT employees can apply for a State Library card, which must be renewed every two years. This card allows individuals to borrow print materials from the NJDOT research library, as well as the New Jersey State Library

Eric noted that links to several online resources and other information about the NJDOT Research Library can be found on the NJDOT Research Library page including links to the NJ State Library which contains additional transportation-related resources.

In addition to the recording, the Lunch and Learn presentation slides can be found here.


Notable Digitized Materials

Accelerated Innovation Deployment (AID) Demonstration Funding Opportunity Available for FY2024

AID Demonstration Program is active again! The Accelerated Innovation Deployment (AID) Demonstration provides incentive funds to eligible entities to accelerate the implementation and adoption of innovation in highway transportation. FHWA has awarded 127 AID Demonstration grants at more than $95.7 million dollars since its launch in 2014. These funds can be used in any phase of a highway transportation project between project planning and project delivery, including planning, finance, operation, structures, materials, pavements, environment, and construction.

The 2023-2026 AID Demonstration Program will make available up to $10 million in grants in Fiscal Year (FY) 2023 and $12.5 million in FYs 2024 through 2026. One change in the new Notice of Funding Opportunity (NOFO 693JJ324NF-AIDDP) for AID Demo is the requirement for potential applications to submit Notices of Intent. While the deadline has passed for the FY 2023 solicitation period, the FY 2024 solicitation period will open on www.grants.gov on February 27, 2024, with the NOI deadline of April 16, 2024, and closing date of May 28, 2024.

The FHWA EDC-7 Team has put together this list of suggested project ideas that can help deploy the EDC innovations either via STIC Incentive Fund Grant projects or AID Demonstration applications.